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By the late 1980s, multimedia, which had been at the fringe of the arts and sciences, reached critical mass and went mainstream. Marc Canter, who developed the first commercial multimedia authoring systems, was a chief catalyst. Canter pioneered software tools that artists and designers used to create multimedia on their personal computers. His authoring systems synthesized text, images, animation, video and sound into a single integrated work, using hyperlinks and other hypermedia techniques to connect its various elements.