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In 1974, Ted Nelson had declared that "The real dream is for ‘everything’ to be in the hypertext." It was a proposal that echoed Marshall McLuhan's influential observation that, "after more than a century of electric technology, we have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned." But despite his best efforts, and many advances in the fields of hypermedia and computer-based telecommunications, the global hypermedia library he envisioned remained more dream than reality. Most innovations in hypermedia focused on closed systems, such as the CD-ROM and interactive installations, rather than on open systems using a computer network.