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Bush and Wiener established a foundation on which a number of computer scientists associated with the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)--a U.S. government funded program to support defense-related research in the1960s—began to build. Leading ARPA's effort to promote the use of computers in defense was the MIT psychologist and computer scientist J.C.R. Licklider, author of the influential article "Man-Computer Symbiosis." Defying the conventional wisdom that computers would eventually rival human intelligence, rather than enhancing it, Licklider proposed that the computer be developed as a creative collaborator, a tool that could extend human intellectual capability and improve a person's ability to work efficiently.