and Wiener established a foundation on which a number of computer
scientists associated with the Advanced Research Projects Agency
(ARPA)--a U.S. government funded program to support defense-related
research in the1960s—began to build. Leading ARPA's effort to
promote the use of computers in defense was the MIT psychologist
and computer scientist J.C.R.
Licklider, author of the influential article "Man-Computer
Symbiosis." Defying the conventional wisdom that computers would
eventually rival human intelligence, rather than enhancing it,
Licklider proposed that the computer be developed as a creative
collaborator, a tool that could extend human intellectual capability
and improve a person's ability to work efficiently.